Albert and Bernard just became friends with Cheryl, and they want to know when her birthday is. Cheryl gives them a list of 10 possible dates.
May 15 May 16 May 19
June 17 June 18
July 14 July 16
August 14 August 15 August 17
Cheryl then tells Albert and Bernard separately the month and the day of her birthday respectively.
Albert: I don’t know when Cheryl’s birthday is, but I know that Bernard does not know too.
Bernard: At first I didn’t know when Cheryl’s birthday is, but I know now.
Albert: Then I also know when Cheryl’s birthday is.
So when is Cheryl’s birthday?
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Lets take the possible answers
If it was May => Albert cant say the first statement, as if the day was 19, Bernard will know the birthday for sure.
If, it is was June => Same is the case with 18th.
If, it is in July => Albert can say the first statement.
If it is in August => Albert can say the first statement.
Now after hearing first statement, Bernard can clearly figure out that the month of birthday is either July or August.
So, if the day was 14 => It can be July 14 or August 14 =>as bernard know now, it is not possible
If the day was 15 => It can be Aug 15
If the day was 16 => it can be July 16
If the day was 17 => it can be Aug 17
Only three days possible are Aug 15, July 16 or Aug 17, bernard knows the day so he know the birthday.
From the third statement, Albert knows the birthday as well, so it can only be July 16, as if the month was Aug, Albert can not figure it out.
Thus the Cheryl’s birthday is on July 16.